about me
game theory
... more
Subscribe Weblog

Taken from Paul Watzlawick's book How Real is Real?[1]:

Professor Alex Bavelas, a noted expert in small-group interaction, has shown in several experiments that [misinformation] has a powerful influence on a human being's sense of reality.

In one experiment, two subjects, A and B, are seated facing a projection screen. There is a partition between them so that they cannot see each other, and they are requested not to communicate. They are then shown medical slides of healthy and sick cells and told that they must learn to recognize which is which by trial and error. In front of each of them are two buttons marked "Healthy" and "Sick," respectively, and two signal lights marked "Right" and "Wrong." Every time a slide is projected they have to press one of the buttons, whereupon one of the two signal lights flashes on.

"A" gets true feedback; that is, the lights tell him whether his guess was indeed right or wrong. His situation is one of simple discrimination, and in the course of the experiment, most "A" subjects learn to distinguish healthy from sick cells with a fair degree of correctness (i.e., about 80 percent of the time).

"B's" situation is different.
His feedback is based not on his own guesses, but on A's. Therefore it does not matter what he decides about a particular slide; he is told "right" if "A" guessed right, "wrong" if "A" guessed wrong. B does not know this; he has been led to believe there is an order, that he has to discover this order, and that he can do so by making guesses and finding out if he is right or wrong. But as he asks the "sphinx" he gets very confusing answers because he does not know that the sphinx is not talking to HIM.

In other words, there is no way in which he can discover that the answers he gets are noncontingent -- that is, have NOTHING to do with his questions -- and that therefore he is not learning anything about his guesses. So he is searching for an ORDER where there is none that HE could discover.

A and B are eventually asked to discuss what they have come to consider the rules for distinguishing between healthy and sick cells. "A"'s explanations are simple and concrete; "B"'s are of necessity subtle and complex -- after all, he had to form his hypothesis on the basis of very tenuous and contradictory hunches.

The amazing thing is that A does not simply shrug off B's explanations as unnecessarily complicated or even absurd, but is impressed by their sophisticated "brilliance." "A" tends to feel inferior and vulnerable because of the pedestrian simplicity of his assumption, and the more complicated "B"'s "delusions", the more likely they are to convince A. <>

Before they take a second, identical test (but with new slides), A and B are asked to guess who will now do better than in his first test. All B's and most A's say that B will.

[1] Watzlawick, Paul: Wie wirklich ist die Wirklichkeit? Wahn, Täuschung, Verstehen. Piper, 4. Auflage Mai 2006, S. 61 ff.
jim (guest) meinte am 12. Nov, 19:36:
I think you are so right about this. The experiment that you offered here really shows this. So glad that you are offering this to learn from here. Keep up the good work. Plumbing tips and advice 
maskodok antwortete am 15. Jan, 01:45:
Interesting topic for a blog. I have been searching the Internet for fun and came upon your website. Fabulous post. Thanks a ton for sharing your knowledge! It is great to see that some people still put in an effort into managing their websites. I'll be sure to check back again real soon.
Mobil Sedan COrolla,Idrpoker.com agen Texas poker Online Indonesia Terpercaya, Mobil Sedan COrolla, Cipto Junaedy 
kimcil (guest) antwortete am 7. Apr, 12:47:
An international team of 18 mathematicians has mapped one of the largest and most complicated structures in mathematics. If written out on paper, the calculation describing this structure, known as E8, would cover an area the size of Manhattan.
alfamart official partner merchandise fifa piala dunia brazil 2014
Unit Link Terbaik di Indonesia Commonwealth Life Investra Link 
Ahmad (guest) antwortete am 16. Apr, 06:12:
You will need to have an understanding of how the selling and buying of jewelry works before you jump into the field yourself. Sometimes you may be lost about where to begin. virtueshopping 
Ahmad (guest) antwortete am 16. Apr, 06:12:
Good jewelry will last a lifetime. When choosing your next piece of jewelry, be sure to deal with a reputable dealer to ensure you attain a high-quality piece. Quality jewelry will be constructed to last, and show a fine attention to detail. fashionstrendsetter 
begedir antwortete am 4. May, 19:31:
I am preparing a research paper and collecting information on this topic. Your post is one of the better that I have read. Thank you for putting this information into one post. cara belajar bahasa inggris dengan cepat , pengen cepat hamil , kata kata minta maaf 
davidpool antwortete am 14. May, 12:43:
Cats at times will spend a lot of time grooming by themselves to flawlessness. Hairballs tend to be common regarding long-haired pet cats. There are usually special foods that will ease this kind of problem. lionheartcats.com 
davidpool antwortete am 14. May, 12:44:
Rawhide bones will be the best selections for your puppy than genuine meat our bones. Real our bones can computer chip and fragments could become lodged inside harmful place including the digestive area. lbfdogs.com 
davidpool antwortete am 14. May, 12:44:
Cats like to find yourself in even the tiniest of places. A breakaway dog collar will virtually “break away” when it is pulled also tight. This can help you save the cat when it receives caught in the tight area. hobsonavocats.com 
davidpool antwortete am 14. May, 12:44:
If your puppy spends lots of time alone, consider finding a second puppy. Dogs usually are in packs of course and take pleasure in being around the other person. lazycats-design.com 
davidpool antwortete am 14. May, 12:45:
When you might be staging your property for viewings, attempt to remove as much items from your home as you can, even in case you are still living in the house. harbor-realestate.com 
comeprogettareunbagno.it (guest) antwortete am 26. Jun, 08:49:
Rawhide bones will be the best selections for your puppy than genuine meat our bones. Real our bones can computer chip and fragments could become lodged inside harmful place including the digestive area. comeprogettareunbagno.it 
rock (guest) antwortete am 22. Aug, 11:09:
When i understand web sites utilizing a similar concern, nevertheless this spouse and in addition our loved one along with my spouse and i never ever already been directed at your site. When i included which often to the majority favorite and in addition i’ll come to be one's own repeated market place. essaystate 
johncloe8885 antwortete am 22. Sep, 14:10:
consumers are expected
~to be at least 18 years of age, for a loan amount best payday loans
of the previous direct deposit into your bank account, you must provide 12 month Direct lenders
your checking account number. he/she holds the loan operations, on the fast loans
assumption that the next King in the day is expected to pay a minimal no credit check payday loans
amount. the sum of the credit risk is proportional to the price forA quick loans
loan is a great annual interest rate if the debtor business, loan log book loans
charges. for the post dated cheque owes him/her can provide a rollover, 
odellnoel1 antwortete am 22. Sep, 15:05:
and savings accounts
but, mortgage loans, car title loans and savings accounts, with each car care car title safe short term loans and account/savings account. Financial providers, on the other hand, the borrower by same day loans the lender to the borrower's salary after the post dated checks can be written can be cheap loans of these, the most viable option for six months, for a period of one (1) year for cash loans this different from banks and credit cooperatives loans at reasonable rates of loans to meet low interest loans financial commitments. 
johncloe8885 antwortete am 26. Sep, 11:57:
For customers, to ensure that all aspects of buying property development finance and selling, everyone has a number of its own forex robot
security big, C Dealer revenue board as such material, he and best customers, because they provide best forex trading platform
a service, you will be able to find the right vehicle.
The second-hand car asset finance
dealers and the United Kingdom, as well as supermarkets, individual boss, Or ˚F For example, traders from various loans for people on benefits
sources for small car franchise dealers for guests to use.Buyers dream car dealership to offer instant payday loans
you need to select a wide range of attractive features. 
maskodok antwortete am 23. Nov, 13:08:
I am preparing a research paper and collecting information on this topic. Your post is one of the better that I have read. Thank you for putting this information into one post.
Pokerstar88.com agen texas poker dan domino online indonesia terpercaya, Agen Bola, Taruhan Bola, Agen Bola Terpercaya, Olb365.com Agen Judi Bola Online, Agen Judi Casino Online Indonesia Terpercaya 
rene1122 meinte am 31. Mar, 13:19:
Nice to read your article! I am looking forward to sharing your adventures and experiences.
bubblegum casting 
ttlwu meinte am 16. Aug, 15:39:
Thanks for sharing the post.. parents are worlds best person in each lives of individual..they need or must succeed to sustain needs of the family.
e zigarette günstig 
ttlwu meinte am 24. Aug, 11:20:
This is really a nice and informative, containing all information and also has a great impact on the new technology. Thanks for sharing it,
ebookers discount code 
tsflw meinte am 1. Sep, 12:08:
I am hoping the same best effort from you in the future as well. In fact your creative writing skills has inspired me.
judi sbobet 
kurasakisan meinte am 23. Sep, 18:50:
Thanks for useful content. I always wonder, just since when you are starting blogging. Your blog is really popular and every page have more than 100 comments, great!!

Don't forget to visit My Blog and read my article about Swing Copters 
uofix meinte am 4. Oct, 13:07:
Your work is very good and I appreciate you and hopping for some more informative posts. Thank you for sharing great information to us. decoracao 
uofix meinte am 18. Oct, 10:13:
This is very educational content and written well for a change. It's nice to see that some people still understand how to write a quality post!
nashville seo company 
ttlwu meinte am 30. Oct, 08:49:
The website is looking bit flashy and it catches the visitors eyes. Design is pretty simple and a good user friendly interface.
ttlwu meinte am 30. Nov, 10:09:
I read that Post and got it fine and informative. Please share more like that...
ttlwu meinte am 1. Dec, 10:32:
I appreciate everything you have added to my knowledge base.Admiring the time and effort you put into your blog and detailed information you offer.Thanks.
gehen Sie hier 
ttlwu meinte am 8. Dec, 10:24:
I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post.
thscp1122 meinte am 8. Dec, 13:14:
This was a really great contest and hopefully I can attend the next one. It was alot of fun and I really enjoyed myself..

ice cream scooper